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Bibliography and Index

[272]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Henry, David D. Challenges Past; Challenges Present. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975.

Herstein, I.N. "On the Ph.D. in Mathematics." The American Mathematical Monthly 76 (1969), 818-24.

Highet, Gilbert. The Art of Teaching. New York: Vintage Books, 1955.

Hohenberg, John. The Pulitzer Prizes. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976.

Howson, A.G., ed. Developments in Mathematical Education. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Hutchins, Robert M. The Higher Learning in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1936.

Jencks, Christopher, and Riesman, David. The Academic Revolution. New York: Doubleday and Co., 1968.

Kendall, Elaine. An Informal History of the Seven Sister Colleges. New York: G.R. Putnam?s Sons, 1976.

Klamkin, Murray S. "On the Ideal Role of an Industrial Mathematician and Its Educational Implications." The American Mathematical Monthly 78 (1971), 53-76.

Kline, Morris. "Freshman Mathematics as an Integral Part of Western Culture." The American Mathematical Monthly 61 (1954), 295-306.

_______ "Mathematical Texts and Teachers, A Tirade" The Mathematics Teacher 49 (1956), 162-72.

_______ Mathematics in Western Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953.

_______ Mathematics and the Physical World. New York: T.Y. Crowell Co., 1959.

______ "A Proposal For the High School Mathematics Curriculum." The Mathematics Teacher 59 (1966), 322-30.

_______ "Intellectuals and the Schools: A Case History." Harvard Educational Review 36 (1966), 505-11.

_______ Mathematics For Liberal Arts. Reading, Mass.: AddisonWesley Publishing Co., 1967.

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"Logic Versus Pedagogy." The American Mathematical Monthly 77 (1970), 264-82.

Why Johnny Can't Add: The Failure of the New Math. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1973.

Langer, Rudolf E. "The Things I Should Have Done, I Did Not Do." The American Mathematical Monthly 59 (1952), 443-48.

Levine, Arthur, and Weingart, John. Reform of Undergraduate Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1973.

Lewis, Lionel S. Scaling the ivory Tower. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975.

Livesey, Herbert. The Professors. New York: Charterhouse, 1975.

Lyons, Gene. "The Higher Illiteracy." Harper's Magazine, September 1976, 33-40.

Martin, Everett Dean. The Meaning of a Liberal Education. Garden City Publishing Co., 1926.

Mathematical Education in the Americas. Teachers College, Columbia University, New York: 1962.

Merton, Robert K. The Sociology of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.

Miller, Richard I. Developing Programs For Faculty Evaluation, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974.

_______Evaluating Faculty Performance. San Francisco: JosseyBass, 1972.

Milton, Ohmer. Alternatives to the Traditional: How Professors Teach and How Students Learn. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1972.

National Science Board. Graduate Education, Parameters For Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969.

Nevanlinna, Roif. "Reform in Teaching Mathematics." The American Mathematical Monthly 73 (1966), 451-64.

Newsom, Carroll V. "The Image of the Mathematician." The American Mathematical Monthly 79 (1972), 878-82.

Nisbet, Robert B. The Degradation of the Academic Dogma, The University in America, 1945-1970. New York: Basic Books, 1971.

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Peterson, R.B. "Survival for Mathematicians or Mathematics." The American Mathematical Monthly 79 (1972), 70-76.

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_______ "The Revolution in Mathematics." The American Mathematical Monthly 68 (1961), 715-34.

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von Neumann, John: "The Mathematician" in R. B. Heywood: The Works of the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1947, 180-196; also in J. R. Newman: The World of Mathematics,Vol. 4, 2053-2063, Simon & Schuster, 1956.

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[278]-Index Title Page

INDEX

[279]

Abstraction, 44-46, 66
....experience and, 186-87
....in high school, 172-73
....numbers as, 203-4
....value and limitations of,71, 122-23

Academic mathematics, history of development of, 17-40
Aesthetic value, as reason for learning mathematics, 128, 166-67

Algebra
....
alternate approach to teaching, 170-71
....
decline in enrollment in,30, 168
....
introduction of, 22
....
and teaching calculus, 142, 143
....
in traditional curriculum, 7
...
American Mathematical Society, 36, 104, 263-67

Analytic geometry, 22, 141-43
Apollonius, 66

Applied mathematics, 55-56, 139-60
....abandonment of, 153-57
....as chief role of mathematics, 151-52
....
decline in, 140
....
and dropouts from science fields, 158-59
....
in high school, 169-78,181-82
....
justifications for ignoring,146-47
....
mathematizing physical problems, 147-49
....
problems of, 49-50
....
reasons to avoid, 149-50
....and teaching the calculus,141-46

Archimedes, 87-88, 123, 139
Aristotle, 174

Arithmetic, 183-89
....acquiring knowledge of skills of, 199-200
....calculators and, 201
....clock, 113-14
....improvements in teaching (1970s), 205-6
....introduction of, 19-21
....progress in teaching, 190-92
....in traditional curriculum, 7, 183-84

[280]
Arnold, Matthew, 133
Axiomatics, 47-49, 66, 114,16, 119, 120

Bacon, Sir Francis, 68
Baker, Russell, 131
Banach, Stefan, 53
Barzun, Jacques, 91
Bell, Eric T., 30
Bellow, Alexandra, 91n
Bellow, Saul, 91n
Biot, Jean-Baptiste, 209
Birkhoff, George David, 35
Bok, Derek C., 250-51, 258
Bolza, Oskar, 35
Bocher, Maxime, 26, 32
Bowditch, Nathaniel, 25
Bruner, Jerome, 186
Brunswick, Duke of, 108
Byerly, 32

Cajori, Florian, 37
Calculators, 199, 201-2

Calculus,
....
the making it meaningful, 143-46
....teaching, 141-43
....texts on, 214

Cartter, Allan, 262
Cauchy, Augustin, 142, 216
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 241
Chesterton, G. K., 95
Colburn, Warren, 23
College attendance (1900), 29
College education, right to, 19

Colleges
....arithmetic required for admission to (18th century), 21
....earliest, 18
....educational job in four-year, 105-7
....land-grant, 18, 20
....mathematics introduced in, 21
....mathematics as preparation for, 167-68
....training teachers, 24-25 training teachers in colonial, 23-24
....training teachers for two-and four-year, 245

Community colleges, 29, 107, 244-45
Compulsory education, 19, 24
Computer science, 56
Congruences, theory of, 113-14
Copernicus, 132

Courant, Richard, 82, 154, 155, 240
....on lack of motivation, 212-13

Cultural approach to mathematics teaching in high schools, 169-78

Cultural values
....ignored by professors,135-36
....of mathematics, 129-30,133-35

[281]
Curriculum
....example of traditional, 6-16
....See also Reform

Darwin, Charles, 89
....Deductive approach (deductive reasoning)
....limitations of, 115-21
....in new courses (1950s),185-86
....teaching, as reason for teaching mathematics,127-28

DeMorgan, Augustus, 116 Descartes, René, 30, 123, 134, 219n
Dickson, Leonard Eugene, 35
Dirac, P. A. M., 83
Discovery, teaching, 204-5
Doctorates, see Graduate schools; Graduate students; Ph.D?s


Einstein, Albert, 37, 74-75, 253
Elementary education, right to free, 19
Elementary schools, 183-207
....arithmetic introduced in,20, 21; see also Arithmetic
....changes in 1950s, 184-86 earliest, 18
....mathematics in, as compared with high schools,170-71
....mathematics feared by teachers of (1950s), 26
....mathematics, pedagogy in 1970s, 190-198
....organizations concerned with, 267-68
....progress in, 189-90
....raining teachers for, 24,25, 202-7

Eliot, Charles William, 24, 254
....
fear of, that, research would detract from teaching, 94-95
....and research, 33-34

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 17
Euclid, 66
Euler, Leonhard, 12, 30, 123

Evaluation (for faculty status) 82-91
....research in, 82-84
....and researchers who do not like to teach, 86-89
....student, of researchers as teachers, 89-91
....of teaching, 84-87;
....see also Teaching requirements

Faculty-to-student ratio, 98-99
Faculty-teaching hours, ratio of, to student-course hours, 99

[282]
Faddism, 56-58, 124-25
Faraday, Michael, 31
Fermat, Pierre de, 30
Feynmann, Richard, 261
Finite mathematics, 124-25
Flexner, Abraham, 36
Ford, Walter Burton, 32
Froebel, Friedrich Witheim, 174

Galilei, Galileo, 68, 118

Gauss, Karl Friedrich, 57, 123
....financial support for, 108
....as great mathematician, 139
....importance of ethics and religion for, 135
....as teacher, 87
....on teaching, 87
....and terminology, 216

Generalizations, 43-44, 66
....indulgence in, 213-14
....work on, as broad, 71

Geometry
....decline in enrollment in, 30, 168
....in elementary schools,194-98
....in traditional curriculum,7-8
....uses of high school, 171-72

Gibbs, Josiah Willard, 25, 32
Gilman, David Coit, 33
Goodwin, Edward J., 22-23

Graduate schools
....reform of, 243-51
....separated from undergraduate functions, 253-58

Graduate students (teaching assistants) as teachers, 97-104
....what they teach, 111-38

Greenwood, Isaac, 20

Group theory (abstract structure), 121, 122

Hadamard, Jacques, 53
Halsted, George Bruce, 36-37
Hardy, Godfrey H., 88
Harper, William Rainey, 33, 34
Hedrick, Earle R., 36-37
Heliocentric theory, 132-33
Helmholtz, Hermann von, 32
Herstein, I. N., 245

High schools, 161-82
....cultural approach to mathematics teaching in, 169-78
....and future professional uses of mathematics,178-79
....organizations concerned with, 267-68
....reasons for traditional curriculum in, 179-80
....traditional curriculum in,161-67

[283]

training teachers for, 259-80
Hilbert, David, 55, 140
Hill, George William, 35
Hilton, Peter, 60
Hopkins, Johns, 33
Hurwitz, Adolf, 248
Huygens, Christian, 62


Institute for Advanced Study, 37, 249, 253
Intellectual challenge, mathematics as, 129, 167
Intuitive approach (in mathematical thought),115-21
Irrational numbers, 119


Jacobi, Carl, 139
James, William, 36, 86
Jeans, Sir James, 132
Jones, Howard Mumford,246-47
Jordan, David Starr, 34, 36

Kant, Immanuel, 75, 186
Kepler, Johannes, 132
Klein, Felix, 32, 48, 55, 140
Koenigsberg bridge problem, 11-12, 123


Laboratory materials, 198-99
Lagrange, Joseph, 30
Land-grant institutions, founded, 18, 20
Laplace, Pierre Simon de, 25, 30, 209
Lecture classes, adoption of large, 97-99, 105
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 30, 123, 142, 218, 220

Liberal arts course, 111-38
....and cultural ignorance of professors, 135-36
....retention in B.A. program,137-38
....essence of, in mathematics, 129-32
....prime goal of, 134-35

Logical approach, see Deductive approach
Lowell, Abbott Lawrence, 35-36, 39

McLuhan, Marshall, 95
Mann, Horace, 24
Mappings, 213
Maschke, Heinrich, 35
Mathematical Association of America, 37, 125-27
Mathematics, characteristics of, 125-27
May, Kenneth 0., 60
Merton, Robert A., 261
Models, 120, 147-48
Money, as reason for universities seeking prestige, 93
Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de, 199
Moore, Eliakim Hastings,35-37
[284]

Morrill Act (1862), 18

National Academy of Science
....effectiveness of, 261-63
....election to, 260-61

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 37,267-68

Neumann, John von, 37, 139,140
....on pure mathematics, 156-57

Nevanlinna, Rolf, 48

New mathematics
....abstractions and, 186
....adopted, 280
....as disaster, 190
....and National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 267-68
....and sophistication in mathematics, 188
....texts on, 229

Newton, Sir Isaac, 30, 45, 64, 123, 127
....and foundation of the calculus, 142
....as great mathematician,139
....importance of religion for,135
....and law of gravity, 131
....and publishing, 83-84
....as teacher, 87

Nevanlinna, Rolf, 48
Nobel, Alfred, 91n

Non-Euclidean geometry,47, 57, 114, 133, 136
....effect of creation of, 133-34

Normal schools, 24, 25, 258-59
Numbers, theory of, 51, 113-14

Olbers, Wilhelm, 87
Organizations,
....
reform and,260-69

Ortega y Gasset, José, 54, 56
Osgood, William Fogg, 26, 32

Pascal, Blaise, 72, 119
Pasch, Moritz, view of mathematical thought,125-26
Peirce, Benjamin, 26, 35
Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich, 27

Ph.D's
....and applied mathematics,159
....geared solely to research,39
....increasing quality of, 37
....
insistence on research and young, 74-76
....and low-quality research,58-59
....oversupply of, 262
....prohibiting publications by young, 264

[285]
....quality of (1900s), 35-36
....research done by, 245-46

Physical science, mathematical essence of theories of,132
Physical world, mathematics and understanding, 129-33
Plato, 199
Poincaré, Henri, 32, 53, 116, 140
Point set theory, 43
Polya, George, 44
Pope, Alexander, 132

Prestige
....graduate school and, 255-57
....universities seeking, 90-94

Probability, 55-56
....in elementary schools,193-94
....need for knowledge of,188, 189

Public education, 19, 24

Public schools, training teachers for, 23-25;
....
see also Elementary schools; High schools

Publication of artificial research, 140-41
....and battle for survival, 73
....generalization and, 43-44
....as goal in itself, 58, 72
....new fields and assured, 42-43
....and peer group approval,89
....
Prohibiting young Ph.D,s from, 264;
....
see also Ph.D's reform of quality of, 243,265-66
....students neglected in pursuit of, 74
....volume of, 59-65

Pure mathematics, 55-56
....dangers of, 156-57
....as useless for most students, 71-72
....See also Applied mathematics

Pythagoras, 89

Qualifications, summary of, for advancing in professorial career, 74-95

Rayleigh, 3rd Baron (John William Strutt), 64
Real number system, 119-21
Reasoning, as reason for teaching mathematics, 127-28;
....
see also Deductive approach; Thinking

Refereeing, 63-64, 265 Reforms, 235-71
....need for, in scholarship,235-47,251-52
....need for, for teachers, 241-47, 251-52
....organizations that should be concerned with, 260-69
[286]
....unproductive efforts in,27-29
....See also Teaching requirements; Texts

Registration, computerized handling of records and,79

Research, 30-40, 70 in applied mathematics,49-50
....as euphemism for prestige, 93-94
....evaluation of, 82-84
....expensiveness of, 96
....first outstanding center for, 35
....fostering unbridled, low-quality, 261-63
....and German mathematicians, (1930s), 37-38
....intellectual activity and,82-83
....launched, 33-34
....as major interest in universities (1920s-1930s), 37
....nature of current, 41-69
....new fields and, 42-43
....and poor graduate schools (1900s), 35-36
....professionalization of, 67
....
in pure mathematics, 49, 50; see also Pure mathematics
....state of (late 19th-early 20th century), 31-33
....takes hold, 34-35
....undergraduate financial
....support of, 96-97
....undergraduates cheated by, 104-5
....war and, 38-39
....worthless, 66-67

Research professors in battle for survival, 73
....cultural narrowness of,135-36
....without interest in teaching, 86-89
....and prestige of universities, 90-94
....prominence and visibility needed by, 72-73
....reasons for limitations of,71-73
....
reform of position of, 251-58
....remoteness of, 80, 81
....special talent of, 81-82
....and specific demands of teaching, 78
....student evaluation of, as teachers, 89-91
....as teachers, 77
....value of knowledge of, 70-72
....value of research vs. teaching, 109-110
....what they teach, 71-78

Riemann, Bernhard, 93, 139
Rockefeller, John D., 33
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 199
Russell, Bertrand, 80
Rutherford, Lord Ernest, 73
[287]

Sartre, Jean-Paul, 35
Schiffer, Max, 151
Scholarship, 235-42

Science
....mathematical essence of theories of physical, 132
....mathematics, physical world and, 129-33
....mathematics divorced from, 50-51; see also Pure mathematics
....See also Applied mathematics

Scientist-humanist separation, 136-37

Secondary schools
....earliest, 18
....mathematics in, 21, 22
....training teachers for, 24,25
....See also High schools Selection standards, 83-87
....judging teaching in, 84-87 research in, 84-85

Set theory, 112-13, 185
Skinner, B. F., 28
Smale, Stephen, 261
Smith, David Eugene, 36-37
Snow, C. P., 136-37
Socrates, 138

Specialization, 51-56, 66, 71;
....see also Research; Research professors Stanford, Leland, 33

Statistics, 55-56
....in elementary schools,193-94
....need for knowledge in,188, 189

Stone, Marshall, 51, 153-54
Story, William E., 34-35
Strutt, R. J., 64
Students, see specific schools
Sylvester, James Joseph, 34-35
Symbolic logic, 121

Teacher colleges, 258-59

Teachers,
..........see Colleges; Elementary schools; Evaluation high schools;
................Graduate students; Research professors; T
eaching requirements

Teaching requirements, 76-80
....college affairs and, 79
....communication and, 80
....and modifications in curricula, 78
....perceptiveness as, 78 personal characteristics of a good teacher, 80-81
....student needs, 76-79 supplying motivation as,78-79

Texts, 208-34
....critical review of poor,231-33
....greed, 225-31
....low quality of, 208-21, 233-34
....
reasons for choosing, 221-25

[288]

Thibaut, Bernhard Friedrich, 87

Thinking
....high school curriculum and teaching of, 163, 186
....lecture system and teaching of, 97, 98
....mathematics not teaching critical, 115
....as reason for teaching mathematics, 127-28
....textbooks and, 218-22

Thorndike, Edward Lee, 28, 184
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 20

Trigonometry
....alternative approach to teaching high school,173
....introduction of, 22
....and teaching the calculus, 142, 143
Truesdell, Clifford E., 68, 72
Truth, mathematics and pursuit of, 133-34

Universities,
....see Lecture classes; Liberal arts course; Reform; Research;
.........Research professors; Colleges

Values of mathematics, 127-36, 169-73
Veblen, Oswald, 35
Veblen, Thorstein, 93
Vieta, François, 64, 65

Weierstrass, Karl, 139, 142-43
Weinberg, Alvin, 242-43
Weisskopf, Victor F., 239

Weyl, Hermann, 37, 135, 140
....on abstraction, 46
....on axiomatics, 48
....on generalizations, 44
....on remoteness of mathematics, 125
....on specialization, 55

White, Andrew Dickson, 33

Whitehead, Alfred North, 149, 165, 200
....on lecture system, 98
....and need to relate mathematics to culture, 177-78

Wiener, Norbert, 32, 53, 261
Wilde, Oscar, 57

Young, Jacob W. A., 36-37

I am very grateful for the kind permission of Professor Kline's widow, Mrs Helen Kline for this book to be reproduced.

Copyright © Helen M. Kline & Mark Alder 2000

This version 29th July 2000

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